Hello again everyone! its matt from kenhub, and in this tutorial, we will be discussing the thyroid cartilage. The larynx is the most superior part of the respiratory tract and the voice box of the human body. It surrounds and protects the vocal cords as well as the entrance to the trachea preventing food particles or fluids from entering the lungs. The cartilages of the larynx make up its skeleton. The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the laryngeal cartilages and partially encloses the other cartilages. You can see the thyroid cartilage.
Highlighted in green on both of these images. on the left side, we see it from a lateral view and, on the right image, you can see the thyroid cartilage from a posterior view with the open pharyngeal muscles. The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the laryngeal cartilages and it is made of two smooth laminae of which the two lower thirds fuse in the midline while most of the superior third remains unfused and creates the laryngeal notch. The thyroid cartilage makes the wellknown.
Adam’s apple due to the laryngeal prominence caused by the fused laminae. the cartilaginous superior and inferior horns are created by the projections of the posterior, superior and inferior borders of the cartilage respectively. The thyrohyoid membrane connects the entire superior aspect of the cartilage to the hyoid bone. Other important structures of the thyroid worth mentioning on this tutorial include the superior thyroid notch which is located on the upper portion of the thyroid cartilage.
While the inferior thyroid notch is a shallow notch found at its lower margin as seen here. The superior and inferior thyroid tubercles are small lateral prominences on the outside of the thyroid lamina located at the upper and lower ends of the oblique line respectively. This tutorial is more fun than reading a textbook, right? If you want more tutorials, interactive quizzes, articles, and an atlas of human anatomy, click on the Take me to Kenhub button. It is time to say goodbye to your old textbooks and say hello to your new anatomy learning.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Endocrine System Growth Hormone and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Let’s learn about 2 anterior pituitary hormones: growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones that have a variety of functions in our bodies. Let’s look at one of these endocrine glands in a little bit of detail. The pituitary gland is located just under the brain in a part of the sphenoid bone known as the sella turcica. The pituitary gland is divided into anterior and posterior sections. Each of these sections.
Work differently. the anterior pituitary contains blood vessels known as the hypophyseal portal system. This blood vessel system allows the hypothalamus to control the secretions of the anterior pituitary gland. There is always a 2step process for secreting anterior pituitary hormones. First a releasing hormone is secreted by the hypothalamus which travels through the blood vessel network to the anterior pituitary. Second a hormone is released by the anterior.
Pituitary in response to the hypothalamic releasing factor. Let’s look at how this works in the secretion of Growth hormone. There are 2 hypothalamic releasing hormones that control the secretion of growth hormone. Growth hormone releasing hormone, secreted by the hypothalamus, facilitates the release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary. Another hypothalamic releasing hormone, somatostatin, has the opposite effect. Somatostatin inhibits the secretion of growth.
Hormone by the anterior pituitary. both growth hormone and somatostatin work to regulate the release of growth hormone. Growth hormone stimulates mitosis and differentiation of cells which results in growth. Too much growth hormone secretion causes a condition known as acromegaly or giantism. Too little growth hormone secretion causes impaired growth. Let’s look at another anterior pituitary hormone. This one is called thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH.
There is also a 2 step process for releasing tsh. First of all, a hypothalamic releasing hormone called thyrotropin releasing hormone or TRH is released. TRH travels through the blood vessels system to the anterior pituitary and causes the release of TSH. TSH targets the thyroid gland and facilitates the release of 2 thyroid hormones T3 and T4. T3 is also known as triiodothyronine And T4 or thyroxine is also known as tetraiodothyronine.
Both contain iodine which is required for making each hormone. T3 and T4 also work with Growth hormone to promote tissue growth. T3 and T4 work to control metabolism Too much T3 and T4 would cause an increase in metabolismand calorie expdenditure. Too little would cause a decrease in metabolism. All of these thyroid hormones are regulated by a feedback mechanism. An increase in TRH levels cause an increase in TSH which cause T3/T4 to increase.