This is a tutorial on the larynx. the larynx is this set of structures here. you’ve got cartilages, muscles and ligaments which make up the larynx. So below the larynx, it’s continuous with the trachea. And above the larynx, you’ve got the pharynx. You’ve got the pharynx above and the trachea below. So the function of the larynx is threefold. If the larynx is completely open, it allows breathing. If it’s partially open, then it allows distortion of airflow which results.
In phonation so talking. and if it’s completely closed, it can protect the respiratory system. So it’s important in breathing, in phonation and in protection of the respiratory system. So there’s quite a lot to talk about with the larynx. So I’m going to do this tutorial in a few parts. I’m going to start with the framework of the larynx. This first tutorial will deal with the cartilages of the larynx and then we’ll build on top of it. So we’ll add on. We’ll add the ligaments on and we’ll talk about the membranes and the vocal cords.
And the muscles and how the larynx functions. so the best thing to do is to start off with the framework, the cartilaginous framework. So the larynx is made up of six cartilages. You’ve got three unpaired cartilages and three paired cartilages. The paired cartilages are smaller and the large, unpaired cartilages are larger. We’ll start at the top and work our way down and we’ll look at these cartilages in a bit of detail.
So before i talk about the cartilages, it’s probably worth mentioning the relationship of the larynx to the hyoid bone. So if I just bring in the bones, you can see the hyoid bone here. I’ve done a tutorial on this bone itself, but you can see this membrane from which the thyroid cartilage is suspended. This is called the thyrohyoid membrane. And if I just bring in the muscle there, there’s a muscle which is quite important as well because this connects from the hyoid bone to the thyroid as well. This is the thyrohyoid.
Muscle. so that’s worth remembering because the larynx is suspended from this muscle and this membrane. So if I just get rid of the thyrohyoid membrane, we can take a look at the first cartilage. You can see this cartilage here. This is called the epiglottis. So remember I mentioned one of the functions of the larynx was to protect the respiratory system. The epiglottis is essential because it can close off the opening to the larynx by flapping over and protecting.
It from any food or debris or anything entering the mouth. So I’ve just removed the thyroid cartilage. You can see the epiglottis here anteriorly. And if I just remove the mucosa of the larynx and pharynx, you can see that the esophagus is posteriorly and the trachea is anteriorly. So the epiglottis can be pulled downwards in front of the opening to the larynx. This prevents any food so the food will be coming in through the mouth and entering into the orifice and it comes down to the laryngopharynx,.
But you want it to go posteriorly into the esophagus, not into the respiratory system. So the epiglottis can flap backwards over the larynx and protect the airways below. So if we just isolate the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage, we can have a look at the relationship of these two structures. So firstly, you can see the shape of the epiglottis. It’s got this kind of leaf shape and then it’s got this stem. So you’ve got this stem and leaf shape for the epiglottis and the stem of the epiglottis is connected to the posterior.
Surface of the thyroid by a little ligament called the thyroepiglottic ligament because it connects from the thyroid to the epiglottis. And also, on the posterior surface of the epiglottis, which isn’t every clear on this model, but you’ve got a little tubercle which sits on the inferior half of the posterior surface of the epiglottis. So I’ve just brought the other structures back in and you can see the ligament attaching the epiglottis to the thyroid cartilage.
Anatomy Basics of Percutaneous Tracheostomy
Anatomical basics of percutaneous tracheostomy Percutaneous Trachoestomy.
It uses dilators Using dilators, the patient doesn’t need dissection of cervical plans. = It is a less invasive method !.
Landmarks , muscles , vessels, nerves Thyroid Cartilage Cricoid Cartilage Tracheostomy = Between 1st and 4th Tracheal Ring The trachea is a long tube, flattened.