Hey guys. today we’re going to talk about grave’s disease. which is a form of hyperthyroidism. But before we get into that, I think it’s important to briefly explain how the thyroid hormones are made maintained and how they effect our body.
So, what happens is that the hypothalamus releases these hormones called; the ‘thyrotropin releasing hormone’ or TRH which act on the anterior pituitary and causing it to release these other hormones.
Called the ‘thyroid stimulating hormones’ or TSH which I’m drawing here as triangles. The TSH will then bind to its receptors on the thyroid gland regulating thyroid hormone production by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland.
T4 and t3 are the two forms of thyroid hormones T3 being the more active form and it is made in less quantity than T4 but T4 can get converted into T3 in the target tissues, which is important to know.
Since there is a medication, which we will talk about that inhibits this conversion. Now, once we have enough thyroid hormones meaning that there is a normal level of thyroid hormones in our body there will be a negative feedback on the hypothalamus.
This will lead to inhibition of the release of trh which then leads to inhibition of the release of TSH and therefore, decrease production of thyroid hormones. The thyroid hormones can pretty much affect our entire body They can help with bone growth neurons and CNS maturation,.
They can work on the heart by stimulating the beta1 receptors effecting the cardiac output, the heart rate, stroke volume and contractility. They can effect the respiratory rate, body temperature, and basal metabolic rate.
They can also lead to glycogenolysis lipolysis and gluconeogenesis. Now in case of Grave’s disease, which is an autoimmune, type 2 hypersensitivity reaction The body forms these antibodies called the ‘thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins’.