So, an autoimmune disease is this special sort of disease, where your own immune cells have gone rogue and start to attack your own cells, right? Hepatitis happens to mean inflammation of the liver, so its reasonable to say that autoimmune hepatitis is this resulting inflammation of your liver tissue, because theyre being attacked by your own immune cells.
Like many autoimmune diseases, the root cause of autoimmune hepatitis is, ultimately, not super clear, but some researchers think its a combination of environmental triggers and genetic predisposition. It tends to occur most often in young women, and the female to male ratio is about 4:1.
Also though, an important piece of the genetic puzzle is the Human Leucocyte Antigen system, shortened to HLA, which is this location of genes on chromosome 6 that regulate our immune functions. Specifically, these genes control the proteins that are encoded and used on the cells surface.
To present foreign molecules to the immune system. But, although they present antigens, theyre also a form of antigen themselves. They arent, though, the same type of antigen as one on an infectious molecule, but actually alloantigens that vary from person to person,.
And are, actually, specific selfproteins. Usually, our thymus makes sure that the Tcells that attack these self proteins arent allowed to survive. In autoimmune disease, there may be some abnormality associated with specific selfproteins that lets the Tcells attack them.
Based on studying people with autoimmune hepatitis, they often have HLADR3 and DR4, which are both MHC class II surface receptors, The DR part refers to its location on the chromosome. For example, depending on the location, you could have HLAA, HLAB, HLAC or HLA D, and HLAD has three subregions:.
P, q and r. So, this one is HLADR. So, specifically with autoimmune hepatitis, there seems to be some sort of connection between these particular selfproteins, the HLADR, and mounting an attack against your own liver.
Autoimmune hepatitis also tends to be associated with other diseases, like Hashimotos thyroiditis, where your immune cells attack your thyroid, and Graves disease, where your thyroid overproduces thyroid hormones. ally,.
How Thyroid Eye DiseaseGraves Disease Affects Eye and Eyelid Position
Is this ptosis and can it be cured? I am 22 years old and noticed a recent change to my eyes where one looks significantly larger than the other. The right eyelid has dropped, and the other seems to give off a ‘staring’ and bulgy appearance. It’s only become noticeable/this bad over the last few weeks. I went to the and was diagnosed with thyroid issues. I asked if this could be related, but she didn’t give me any info. I am now on medication and changed my diet completely. Will this.
Help my eyes? what can i do? Thank you for your question! Youre 22 years old and you described very well in detail with this one photo that you submitted how one is drooping and the other is starting to bulging and staring. And that you have seen your and you were diagnosed with thyroid issues and you are on medication. So I think that what youre going to be learning about and what this appears to be.
A situation called thyroidrelated immune orbitopathy. just to give you some background, Im a board certified cosmetic surgeon but with original training in eye surgery followed by training in oculoplastic surgery which is surgery of the eyelids or the lacrimal system. And we specialize in thyroidrelated eye disease. So the term that is typically used in our field is thyroidrelated immune orbitopathy or TRIO. Another term that is more commonly used is Graves’ disease. What this disease.
Is caused by an autoimmune response that these antibodies that affect both the thyroid and the soft tissue of the eyes. A lot of people believe that the thyroid is affected by either by creating too much thyroid hormone called hyperthyroid. In this disease, you can have high thyroid, low thyroid or hypothyroid or it can be normal thyroid or euthyroid. But theres often a misunderstanding that theres a direct relationship between the thyroid hormone and the changes in the eyes. Its not the case. The thyroid and the eyes are.
Affected by the antibodies and whats happening is, your endocrinologist will manage you with either medication or may be even something called radioactive iodine to reduce the thyroid depending on what happens on your thyroid hormones. The eye changes will occur regardless, even if there has been some studies that have shown that when the thyroid level is very high, the eye changes are worse. But a person can have very well controlled thyroid but their eye changes can go on for years.
In general, the understanding is that most thyroid related immune disease is divided in to two stages: one is called the inflammatory stage and the other is called the fibrotic stage. The inflammatory stage is the stage youre in right now where there are continuous changes in the eye shape and the eye may push forward, the eye may become very red, the eyes may retract and staring appearance will occur. But its a time of variability. And there are a lot of different options of how to manage depending on how the eyes are affected.
Management options include nothing or observation, the use of steroids as well as the use of radiation and this will be determined by you and your s as things develop. When we talk about surgical options, we wait for the stage called the fibrotic stage. The one exception of course is if the inflammatory stage occurs. The inflammatory stage is it affects the muscles of the eyes as well as the fat around the eyes. It also affects the eyelids. And thats why the eyes can even not bulge out but the eyes can open and become.
Very retracted. during this inflammatory stage, like i said, theres continuous changes. Theres a time where the disease finally burns out and it becomes whats called the fibrotic stage. And thats the stage when the appearance becomes more stable. Now the time frame is, this inflammatory stage can last up to 5 years but in typical al experience, it will last up to somewhere two years. The way to determine stability is by doing measurements by the relative position of the.