Thyroid nodules are basically a grabbag of every kind of growth of the thyroid gland, which include mostly benign tumors of the thyroid gland but can be slow or fast growing cancers. The vast majority of thyroid nodules are asymptomatic, meaning that the patient has no idea that they actually have a thyroid.
Nodule. the vast majority of thyroid nodules are found by your physician on routine examination or they can be found by ultrasounds or CAT scans. Patients will occasionally feel a bump in their neck, but on most episodes, they will feel nothing. If they are large enough, thyroid nodules can cause problems with swallowing. They can cause some shortness of breath.
They can also cause problems with just compressivetype pressure symptoms in the neck. Risk factors are divided between sexes. Men, in general, don’t get very many thyroid nodules, but women have thyroid nodules very commonly. For women over 60, having a thyroid nodule is more common than not having.
A thyroid nodule. There is a rule that we use to estimate the percentage of people your age that do have thyroid nodules. And that is to subtract 10 from your age, and that’s the percentage of people your age if you are a womanthat would have a thyroid nodule, so.
For a 70yearold female, she whould have a 60 percent chance of having a thyroid nodule. Now, again, thyroid nodules are usually not cancerous, and so you can see that 60 percent of women obviously don’t have thyroid cancer. So your risk factor for having a thyroid nodule is not necessarily a risk factor for having cancer.
Thyroid nodules can be diagnosed on physical exam and then also by imaging studies. In general, they’re diagnosed by either a primary care or another physician who palpates the neck and feels a nodule in the lower portion the neck. Occasionally, it’ll be a small bump or a bigger bump. The nodules can also be found either on purpose or incidentally by imaging.
Studies, such as cat scans or ultrasounds. Treatment options begin with grouping thyroid nodules into generalized size groups. Patients who have nodules that are less than 1 centimeter . We generally observe these nodules. On occasion, we recommend biopsy of these nodules, but only if you have risk factors.
Based on your family history or exposure. for nodules that are between 1 and 4 centimeters, there are a variety a tests that can be done. In our , we probably begin with an ultrasound. If there were any suspicious features of the nodules or if they had absolute size that were suspicious, then we would recommend.
The Cell Cycle and Cancer
Captioning is on! please click the cc button at the bottom right to turn off. Follow the amoebas on Twitter (@amoebasisters) and on Facebook. Today’s topic is the cell cycle and mitosis. But before we get into the cell cycle and mitosis, we want to be sure to talk about why these words are important and how they relate to real life. So if I say the word cancer, this words probably means something to you. Either you know somebody who has been diagnosed with cancer or you’ve heard about.
It on the news. there’s many different types of cancers but one thing they all have in common is that they are caused by uncontrolled cell growth. That means, someone’s own cells grow out of control. Now, that doesn’t mean that there aren’t other contributing factors for example for some cancers having genetic links, meaning it runs in the family, can make someone more likely to develop it, or having excessive exposure to UV light for some cancers. Those are risk factors that can increase your risk. But the main cause.
Of cancer is uncontrolled cell growth. that also means it’s something that it is not contagious and that it’s something that anyone can develop. You have to realize that all the cells in your body are very busy. And they’re either in one of two different phases. They are either in a phase called interphase and during interphase they are just growing, replicating DNA, their doing their cell functions or they are in mitosis. Mitosis is a fancy word that means they are dividing, they are making new cells.
If you think about the cell cycle, whether they are in interphase or mitosis, it’s kind of like a pie graph. They are spending about 90% of their time in interphase. Most of the time cells are not dividing, most of the time they are in interphase, they are growing, they’re doing their daily cell functions and they are replicating their DNA. Most of the time, not dividing. Now, depending on what kind of cell, it might do mitosis more or less often; for example, your hair follicle cells, they do mitosis frequently which is.
Why your hair can grow up to half an inch every month. but other cells like for example your brain cells, your neurons, some of them do not perform mitosis, which is why if you have some type of major injury to the spinal cord or to the brain, sometimes those do not heal very well because those cells do not replicate. So mitosis is very important to generate new cells, which can help with growth and also if you damage your cells. If you’re walking down the street and you have some kind of.
Accident, and you skin your knee, well you’re going to need to repair those damaged cells. You’re going to need to be able to mitosis to repair those cells. The thing is you don’t want your cells to be always doing mitosis because if their always doing mitosis, then they are always dividing and then they’re not carrying out their actual function and that’s a problem. That’s where check points come in handy. See, along the cell cycle there are check points.
To check that the cell is growing correctly and replicating it’s dna correctly and doing everything it’s supposed to correctly before it divides. And what happens if the cell fails it’s check point? The cell does something called apoptosis which basically means the cell destroys itself, it selfdestructs. This might seem kind of harsh but actually it’s really important because it ensures you don’t have these cells that are messed up continue on and divide. You don’t want damaged cells to continue on and divide because they might.
Do not do what they are supposed to, they might start to grow out of control, they might not be regulated correctly. That’s where cancer cells come in. See cancer cells, as we had said, are your body’s own cells that are growing out of control. So they are not following the rules of these checkpoints, they are flying past the check points going through the cell cycle and frequently doing mitosis, which means they are dividing very, very often. And so by doing that they.